Objective Approach in Soul-winning Work
ESMERALDO A. DE LEON Chaplain, Manila Sanitarium and Hospital
We live in the days of research and study. Educators today are using all ways and means humanly possible to secure data about an individual or group of individuals in order to equip themselves with a more objective approach to the various problems and needs of those whom they are working to educate. The shifting of emphasis in the method of education during the first quarter of the century from subject matter to the child, and the continuous and progressive studies in various fields to enrich knowledge and under standing with the aim of dignifying the human person, are significant to the workers in the cause of God. Indeed, it was for the human individual that the very Son of God came to suffer the ignominious death on the cross.
It is to be recognized, moreover, that true education and redemption are one. They came from the same Source and have the same ultimate objective the restoration of the image of God in man. It is conceivable, for this reason, that the method which has been proved to be fruitful of good results in the former may also be effective and fruitful in the latter.
Jesus was the Master Soul Winner. He was objective in His approach. He was equipped with facts about the individual before He made the approach. He knew the needs of every one of His many prospects, indeed, even the very personal problems of everyone with whom He came in contact. His keen understanding of the different needs and problems of each of the twelve disciples, their varied backgrounds, temperaments, and occupations before their con version, was a clear example of the objectivity of the Master's approach to the work of soul winning. Then His "Go, call thy husband," "Go and sell that thou hast," and "Except a man be born again," are excellent manifestations of Jesus' objective knowledge of the different moral and spiritual needs confronting His prospects.
But inasmuch as the soul winner cannot read minds as Jesus did, it behooves him to discover some ways and means by which he can be objective in his approach to soul-winning work if he is to follow the exemplary method of the Master Soul Winner.
A Helpful Questionnaire
After some years of hospital work I am humbly passing on some of the results of my study for the information of fellow workers in the institutions and in the field. I hope and believe that these findings will be of help in both personal and public efforts. A questionnaire is given to every patient to ascertain his religious beliefs and problems that are within the sphere of the functions of the chaplain's office. This is done by a nurse assigned to work in the office of the chaplain. She also aids the patient in answering every question in the questionnaire. Space will not allow me to present the whole form here, but some of the pertinent items of the questionnaire are as follows:
Do you believe in a God that is (personal?) (nonpersonal?) (Not sure?) (No God?) Do you believe that God created (man?) (the world?) (Not sure?) (Man and world by evolution?) Do you believe in a personal devil that is (handsome?) (ugly, with horns, spikes, tail?) (No devil?) (Not sure?) Do you believe that the world is (rushing to its end?) (to continue as it is?) (Not sure?) Do you believe in the Second Advent of Jesus that is (personal?) (spiritual?) (Not sure?) The individual has merely to underline his answer. If we are seeking objective information our questions should be perfectly clear and definite. Information obtained through the questionnaire has been most helpful to us in our personal work among the patients, anwinning work that decision is to be secured following the presentation of a new truth, and this decision should be followed promptly by a strong appeal for obedience. Equipped with knowledge of the beliefs of his prospect, the personal worker can approach his work with more objectivity. In the series of studies that he will give, he is aware of the truths that will be new to his prospect. He will make preparation to meet the definite needs of the hungering soul for the bread of life. Like a trained physician, who after a careful diagnosis prescribes treatment that will restore to health his patient suffering from some deficiency disease, the soul winner will make provision to meet the urgent moral and spiritual deficiencies of his prospect. In the progressive course of the learner of truth the worker knows with certainty the decisions to be obtained, and thus can be timely in his appeal for action to obey. Furthermore, a tabulation of the findings will help in a public effort. This is, of course, true only if the results of the study represent a cross section of the worker's field. My own findings may be taken as an example. I believe that they are a representative cross section of the field in both unions in the Philippines, for three reasons: (1) there were about 2,000 individuals studied; (2) the cases studied were from almost all the different sections of the archipelago; (3) they were men and women from almost all walks of life in the Philippines.
For purpose of illustration a brief tabulation of the findings is presented, with figures in percentages. Religious denominations represented in the tabulation are as follows; Roman Catholic, Methodist, Church of Christ, Philippine In dependent Church, and those without religious affiliation. (Since not all questionnaires were completely filled in, the columns below will not necessarily each total 100 per. It is easily seen from this tabulation that the public evangelist cannot be less objective in his discourse than the personal worker. With knowledge of the different beliefs of his audience, he is better acquainted with their basic moral and spiritual needs. He is in a position to determine the subject that will most appeal to them and satisfy their pressing necessities.
He knows those points of truth in any given subject that need more explanation and emphasis than others, and those that simply need to be mentioned in the course of presentation. He is as sure in his method as the Word he preaches is sure. He can with apostolic certainty declare, "I therefore so run, not as uncertainly; so fight I, not as one that beateth the air" (1 Cor. 9:26).
Retreat for Doctors and Workers
FLORA OSLUND Secretary to President, Upper Columbia Conference
[Although we do not ordinarily report local workers' meetings in our journal, owing to lack of space, we have requested this report, since it emphasizes the fellowship between our doctors and workers. More and more of our conferences are inviting the doctors in their areas into these workers' meetings a practice to be commended. We can all be workers together. EDITORS.]
The mighty sentinels keeping watch through the night, the tall trees swayed gently in the breeze as they looked down upon the dark and peaceful water of the lake. Distant mountains hid the remaining portion of the sun as it splashed one last brushful of resplendent color across the western sky. The Sabbath day was ushered in. This was one of the never-to-be-forgotten scenes to remain with more than four hundred persons from the Upper Columbia Conference who gathered at Camp Mi-Voden on the beautiful shores of Hayden Lake, Idaho, August 12-15, to enjoy the Seventh Annual Retreat for Doctors and Workers. Together with wives and children, the ministers and doctors of the conference met together for a few brief days to cement medical and missionary relationships for the further advancement of the cause of evangelism in this field. Wise counsel was given by the three guest speakers for the occasion, Miss Dorothea Van Gundy of the International Nutrition Research Foundation, Elder Carl Sundin of the Medical Extension Department of the General Conference, and Dr. Mervyn Hardinge, professor of Pharmacology at the College of Medical Evangelists. How the combination of medical and minis terial professions can prove to be a blessing one to the other in the winning of souls to Christianity, was Elder Sundin's theme as he spoke at the first meeting of the session. Miss Van Gundy gave an interesting illustrated lecture on the relation of physical to mental and spiritual development. Sabbath services were held in the outdoor chapel under a canopy of blue sky. Dr. Hardinge addressed the large audience, stressing the need for humanity to return to God's original plan of diet and health principles. A symposium on "Cooperative Evangelism," under the direction of C. Lester Bond, was held on Sabbath afternoon. Those taking part were W. A. Loveless, Dr. Omer Drury, Mrs. Teresa Potter, Dr. W. F. Plainer, Dr. Wilbur Goertz, Dr. Charles Smick, and Ray Van Voorst. Entertainment for Saturday evening was provided by Dr. Edward Bond, as he showed several films. Recreational hours were spent in many and varied activities, including swimming, water skiing, surfboard riding, boating, and the play ing of horseshoes. We are sure that all those who attended the retreat received a spiritual blessing as they united with God's people in the great outdoors.
Should Alcoholic Beverages Be Classified as a food?
W. A. SCHARFFENBERG Secretary, International Temperance Association
Another vicious doctrine that is being ZA- palmed off on the American people by the alcohol beverage interests is that alcohol is a food. Beer, wine, and whisky, say fellow travelers of the alcohol beverage interests, should therefore be placed in every food store, grocery, and supermarket in the country.
The liquor interests realize that there is a well-organized movement that is gaining momentum and calling for a ban on all taverns, bars, and cocktail lounges in the country. Bills are being introduced in State legislatures, calling for more controls, restrictions, and prohibitions regarding the operation of cocktail lounges, bars, and taverns. This has given the liquor interests grave concern. They are there fore launching a vigorous campaign promoting the idea that beer, wine, and whisky are a food. "Beer," the brewers say, "is a beverage, but like milk, it is a food." 1 The following statement will serve as an illustration of how the brewers are palming off the idea that beer is a food: "Leading scientific and professional men have attested to the value of beer as a food. The information published here, the major part of which has been furnished by the Brewing Industry Foundation, should be widely reproduced and circulated. Brewers and beer distributors can do much toward making this possible." 1 "Writing on the subject 'Beer as a Food,' Dr. Howard W. Haggard, Director, Laboratory of Applied Physiology, Yale University, said recently: 'A food is a substance which, when eaten, supplies the body with nourishment and with energy for warmth and movement. Beer satisfies this definition and is in every sense a food. . . . The consensus of all foreign opinions is that beer is a nutritional food. . . . Upon analyzing the nutritional values of beer, we find that beer compares favorably with many of the common foods. . . . Beer is essentially an extract or broth of cereal grains which have been first treated to render their carbohydrates soluble. Beer therefore contains most of the food values of grain products, that is carbohydrates, minerals and some protein. . . . People of all times have regarded beer as a food. Their belief has been substantiated by modern science which has shown that beer contains as much of the nutritive elements as are found in many common foods. Beer is a beverage, but, like milk, it is a food.' " T The brewers therefore launched an intensive campaign to reach the American home. They came to the conclusion, as the following editorial indicates, that "the key to this market is the food store." "The majority of brewers enjoying ready access to metropolitan markets have by now made more or less definite decisions, in formulating their post war plans, for intensive merchandising campaigns designed to promote bottle beer. It is now widely recognized that peace-time beer sales will be greatly influenced by the success with which brewers will be able to reach their greatest potential market the American home.
The key to this market is the food and grocery store, an outlet that is receiving increased attention by marketing experts." 1 I recently came across an article entitled "How Retailers Can Sell More Beer," by Vernon H. Van Diver, president of Van Diver and Carlyle, Inc. Mr. Van Diver talked about selling more beer and emphasized the fact by saying, "I mean a lot more!" He said, "It's easy, if you go about it the right way. The place to sell more beer and ale is in the home that means sell women. Women do 90% of the shopping."
He suggested that the salesman "work with the grocery store and the super market." "Pro mote beer," said Mr. Van Diver, "as a beverage at meal times," for "beer is a food." He further suggested that the grocer be encouraged to "give women a little booklet showing typical family meal combinations with beer delicious mouth watering combinations," and, of course, directions should be included as to how to serve them.2 A number of supermarkets and chain stores are now promoting the consumption of beer as a food on a large scale. Mr. George J. Perkins, a buyer for one of the large chain groceries, declared recently: "It is an inevitable outcome that the entire beer industry looks to its future for greater volume through the food stores. The sales potential of beer through these outlets is unlimited." Expounding further, Mr. Perkins describes this potential. "Over 200 million people, the highest traffic of any type o£ retail establishment in the country, move through the food store each week. This easy, convenient, widespread availability which only these outlets can offer, will bring you the greatest potential in untapped beer sales. "Whether you like it or not, people are going to drink more beer at home, the center of our social life. There is no better way to get this beer into the home than through the women who do their regular weekly 'must' shopping in a food store. "People don't necessarily have to drink beer, but they do have to eat, and there is no better way by which you can get beer into the home, than through the food store. If we are to get more people to drink more beer, then every effort must be made to get this beer into the refrigerator of every home. "The average family spends most of its time at home, and if beer is made more accessible, more beer will be consumed. "In recent years many communities, because their leaders recognized the advantages to be gained in increased distribution, set up separate licenses for beer, wine and liquor respectively.
By having separate licenses they increased not only beer distribution through the medium of food stores and other outlets, but the city's revenue increased proportionately by the thousands of new outlets which came into being. "Increased beer sales in these communities have been the result, not only from the increased out lets, but also from the increased consumption of beer. T
his was not due to people drinking more beer, but from more people drinking beer, because of increased distribution." Mr. Perkins concludes: "There is absolutely no reason why only 57 million people in this country drink beer today, except the lack of mass distribution. With maximum distribution, consumption of beer can well be doubled. In these days of a shrinking dollar, the greatest potential for new beer business can be had through the food store." 3 According to the brewers: "Only sixty-one thousand of the nation's one-half million food stores sell beer. Four to eight per cent of the total sales of the food stores handle this product. If we take the four per cent estimate, it means that there is a total potential volume of one billion, two hundred and eighty million dollars to retail outlets alone. More people are buying beer in food stores today, than ever in history, because it is easy to buy and is convenient in stores where housewives go almost daily." This statement was made by a saleswoman who urged that the retailers be encouraged to set up and promote beverage departments in their stores beverage departments that would give demonstrations as to how to mix beer, wine, sodas, etc. and that sales be promoted through real showmanship, salesmanship, spotlights on displays, special promotion, multiple sales, sales on related items, and all the good merchandising technique that can be used. This trend is a cold-blooded, heartless plan to alcoholize American homes.
Bringing beer, wine, and whisky into the grocery stores and drugstores, according to the words of these men, "has been a protective arm for the alcoholic beverage industry." 4 Remember that phrase, "a protective measure." This comes from the editor of the Tavern News. Beer in grocery stores and drugstores has become a protective measure for the alcoholic beverage industry is this not a significant statement? But listen to this statement: "The man or the woman who is reluctant about going into a liquor store or tavern for fear of being seen through critical eyes can lay in such a store of alcoholic beverages through other convenient sources as he or she-desires for consumption in the privacy of his or her own home." 1 This indicates that there are a lot of people, even today, who are ashamed to go into a liquor store to purchase liquor but they apparently do not object to buying it in a grocery store or drugstore. Therefore a deliberate effort is being put forth to convert every grocery store or drug-
store into a bottle store. If the day should ever come when the taverns and public barrooms are banned, the liquor interests will have become well entrenched in the food stores, groceries, and supermarkets. An indication of the progress the liquor interests have made will be found in checking the records. It is estimated that before the last war about 75 per cent of all alcoholic beverages consumed in the United States was consumed in taverns, barrooms, and cocktail lounges, and that only 25 per cent was consumed in the home. Now it is estimated that 25 per cent is consumed in the tavern and barroom and 75 per cent in the home.
What Is a Food?
A food is a substance that nourishes the body in four ways: it supplies energy or calories when burned or oxidized; it provides materials for building and upkeep of body tissues; it furnishes means by which body processes are regulated; and it provides material that may be stored as glycogen, fat or protein, or normal body structure. For a substance to be classed as a food it must nourish the body in all of these four ways. Alcohol is not listed in the index of any text book used in the teaching of foods and nutrition in colleges or medical schools. It should not be classified as a food. It may, however, be classified as a nutrient but a nutrient is not actually a food.
A nutrient is a substance that does any one or part of the four things listed under a food. Alcohol may be considered a nutrient, for it produces heat. It is a very poor nutrient, and the consumption of alcohol is the greatest cause of nutritional disturbance in the United States. It is a very poor nutrient, for even in small doses it intoxicates, dilates the blood vessels, thus increasing the loss of the caloric heat which it produces, and is the principal cause of many nutritional diseases. Alcoholic beverages should therefore not be referred to as a food. In textbooks for medical students alcohol is discussed under drugs, and not under foods. Alcohol is a depressant, anesthetic narcotic, a stupefying, habit-forming drug. "The Bureau of Internal Revenue has passed the word to the nation's brewers to stop making a lot of 'caloric claims' about their products." 5 The following editorial indicates that even those connected with the liquor traffic question the advisability of promoting the idea that beer contributes to the healthy .growth of human cells and is good for one.
"The United States Brewers' Foundation is putting scientists to- work to prove that beer is 'one of the most healthful fluids a person can drink.' " 'Beer,' said Frederick C. Miller of Milwaukee, head of the foundation's special committee on research, 'contains minerals, vitamins and proteins. The scientists will prove scientifically that beer also contributes 'to the healthy growth of human cells.' "This we have never doubted for a moment. A belt line profile census of bartenders would convince anyone. The 'cells' are known collectively in trade circles as the Milwaukee stomach or the German goiter. "What the brewers are now doing is falling into the trap of advertising specialists who think that the way to sell something is to prove that 'it's good for you.' It's getting so that a man can't eat, drink, smoke or do anything for the pleasure of it.
Everything is rationalized as healthful or men tally stimulating or as a protection against flat feet or dandruff. Time was when a man took a cool glass of beer, blew off the foam and let it pour down his throat for no reason at all except that he liked beer. Nobody tried to sell beer on the basis that it was 'good for you'; it was just 'good.' "Time is coming when Americans will stage mass revolution against these appeals to health. Signs of the revolt can be seen by careful observers even now. Most kids reach maturity with a deep-seated hatred for a food or beverage that a doting mother stuffed into them because 'it's good for you.' Don't let this happen to beer! If we want vitamins, proteins and minerals, we'll take pills washed down by a whisky chaser." e Yes, the time is coming, and we predict soon, when the people will stage a mass revolution against these appeals to health.
When Senator Edwin Johnson of Colorado and Representative Bryson introduced bills in Congress calling for ' a ban on the advertising of alcoholic beverages, they were merely representing the feelings of a large number of people who feel the time has come to act. In a closed session of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, to which the bill had been referred, nine out of sixteen voted favorably on reporting the bill to Congress for enactment. This indicates' that people are becoming aroused.
In the next article of this series we will discuss the strategy that the alcoholic beverage industry is using in order to enlist the support of the clergymen in fostering a program of moderation.
1. Brewers' Digest, September, 1944.
2. Brewers' Journal, January, 1949.
3. National Beer Wholesalers' Convention, Chicago, Illinois
4. Tavern News, Nov. 20, 1950.
5. The Server, June 8, 1953. Beverage Dealer Neuts, May 21, 1951.